Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the head intelligence service of Pakistan. It is responsible for providing, managing, and coordinating Military Intelligence for the Pakistan Armed Forces.
After an apparent intelligence failure in the Indian-Pakistani War of 1947, the ISI was established by Army Major-General R. Cawthome and Navy Commander S.M. Ahsan.
In a view to organizing Military Intelligence from each major service branch and provide an inter-service intelligence assessment.
ISI recruited intelligence operatives from each service, including civilians. ISI has become very influential and powerful. Because of its wide range of intelligence services and influence, the ISI criticized internally and externally.
The Director-General is the head of the ISI, also the principal adviser to the Prime Minister and President of Pakistan.
The DG ISI is responsible for giving critical national security and intelligence assessment to Pakistan’s Government.
The Directorate of Military Intelligence (MI) provides intelligence to the Army, while Naval Intelligence and Air Intelligence are the other main branches.
Each department’s intelligence services are tasked with providing intelligence on foreign operations, performing counterintelligence operations, and identifying and eliminating sleeper cells, foreign agents, and other anti-Pakistani elements within Pakistan.
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Further functions include monitoring high-level Army and political leaders and safe-guarding critical military and non-military facilities.
The Director-Generals are usually Two-Star officers of each intelligence branch.
Traditionally, most intelligence work and services in Pakistan carried out by the ISI, the Intelligence Bureau (IB), the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), and others in the Pakistani intelligence community.
The National Intelligence Directorate (NID) was established in 2014 to give better coordination and eliminate competition. The NID serves a related purpose as the U.S. National Intelligence Estimate, providing statistical analysis and counter-insurgency instructions at all levels of control.
Also check: Military Intelligence (MI) Pakistan