The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police (خیبر پختونخوا پولیس) (formerly called the Frontier Police) enforces the law and maintains order in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
|Police Service||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police|
|Common Name||KPK Police|
|Annual budget||Rs. 28,534.630 Million|
|Headquarters||Central Police Office Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Road Civil Secretariat Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan|
|Agency Executive||Moazzam Jah Ansari, Inspector General of Police|
|Service Color||Dark blue and red|
|Uniform Color||Black, Khaki|
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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s current areas have been influenced by a variety of civilizations, including the Persians, Greeks, Bactrians and Kushans. Further, the Pashtun region as well as other dynasties such as the Ghaznavi, Ghauri, Timurid, Afghan, Mughal and Sikh ruled the area.
They maintained a variety of arrangements to police their populations, such as establishing kotwals in cities, chaukidars in villages, barkandaz to supervise prisoner labour, and private militias in various Khanates.
The British annexed Pashtun lands in 1849. Initially, the British maintained the Mughal and Sikh policing systems in large parts of Pashtun land, but the Punjab Frontier Force was established to secure peace and security.
After Indian independence in 1857, there was no organized police force in India and the Police Act of 1861 established a fully-fledged policing system. In 1889, the Act was extended to frontier territories, and the District Magistrate was provided with armed staff for police duties.
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Police Act of 1861
On August 17, 1860, British rulers established a Police Commission after obtaining complete control of India. Within 22 days, the Commission delivered its report along with a draft Police Act, which was implemented in 1861 and gave birth to the current Police force.
The purpose of this Police Act, which was modelled after the Irish Constabulary Act, was to establish a police force to reinforce and preserve British power in the region. It was diametrically opposed to the concept, duties, and goals of British police forces.
The North-West Frontier Province (N-WFP) was established in 1901 and placed under the supervision of the Chief Commissioner, who previously served as the Governor General of India’s representative.
Two administrative systems were formed in this new province: The province’s British territory was divided into five Settled Districts: Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan; the areas to the north and west of the established districts were split into 5 Political Agencies: Khyber, Mohmand, Kurrum, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan. A Political Agent was in charge of each Political Agency.
The N-Inspector WFP’s General of Police (IGP) was in charge of the Settled Districts. In 1889, the Code of Criminal Procedure established criminal courts. Cantonment Police were also present to ensure the safety of garrisons.
Different Levies were created for Political Agencies, such as the Samana Rifles, Border Military Police, Chitral Scouts, and Kurrum Militia. The indigenous Maliki and Khasadari systems, in addition to the Levies, were also allowed to continue.
The Samana Rifles and the Border Military Police were eventually united in 1913 to establish the Frontier Constabulary (FC). In 1935, Police Training College was started in Hangu.
On 9 July 1902, after a respectable period of time had passed since its introduction and operations on the ground, the government of British India formed a seven-member panel chaired by Andrew Henderson Leith Fraser to conduct a full review and provide recommendations for improvements. The Commission proposed only minor changes to the organization and procedures.
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In 1934, the Police Rules were enacted, outlining specific instructions and procedures for all parts of police service. Despite the fact that the Police Act of 1861 remained in force after Pakistan’s independence in 1947, successive governments created 24 commissions and committees to make recommendations on how to enhance the country’s police force.
Assistant Sub-Inspector Arbab Rafiullah Jan was the first KPK Police Martyr/Shaheed. He was a brave Peshawar police officer. In 1966, he gave his life in resolving a public conflict between two groups, for which he received the civil prize Tamgha E Shujaat. All Inspector Generals were British military or civil officers from 1901 until 1947. In 1948, Khan Gul Muhammad Khan was the first local IG Police after the country gained independence in 1947.
When the NWFP became part of West Pakistan under the One Unit System in 1955, Muhammad Anwar Ali became the IGP. After the One Unit system was abolished in 1970, MAK Chaudhary was appointed as IGP NWFP. During the reign of IGP Malik Naveed Khan, the NWFP was renamed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in 2010.
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There was no major paradigm shift in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa police organization between 1947 and 2001, except when the police uniform was revised and a black coloured shirt was added, while the Pakistan Army‘s Khaki drill pants were retained intact. This was done during the reign of President Muhammad Ayub Khan. This consistent pattern is still in use today.
The government issued a new police order in 2002 that made numerous significant changes to the police force, making it more responsive, accountable and democratic.
Special Police Organizations
- Rapid Response Force, this police unit, RRF is a special combat unit with the ability to deploy within hours. They have the latest technological weaponry and gear, as well as the ability to counter terrorism, rescue hostages, and deal with any other security needs. This kind of officer or commando wears a black uniform with the elite police logo.
Police commandos in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa will be trained along the same lines as the al Zarrar company of the Pakistani Army’s Special Services Group (SSG) with government funding. A training school for this purpose has also been established in Nowshehra by the government.
- The Reserve Frontier Police is a force of 10,000 personnel operating in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (formerly known as North Western Frontier Province).
- The elite force is a group of 6,000 highly trained security and counterterrorism specialists.
- Special Combat Unit of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police (SCU) is a large tactical police force operating across the province.
Levies and Khasadar joined the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police armed reserve in spring 2019.
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